of Atri Rishi
and Mata Anusuya is in many instances, specially in Rigveda,
in this context the triad Swaroop signifies the
conglomeration of Sun (Surya), Fire (Agni) and Wind
In Tripura Rahasya, Shandilya
Upanishad, Markandeya Puran, Padma Puran, the divinity of
Dattatreya is gracefully enumarated.
The progeny of Atri Rishi
and Anusuya Mata Dattatreya has been adored and revered
from Vedas and Upanishads time hence as divine Incarnation
From historical proficiency Shri
Shripad Shrivallabha, Shri Narasinha Saraswati, Shri
Swami Samartha, Shri Sai Baba, Shri Manik
Prabhu, Shri Vasudevanand Saraswati, Shri Gajanan
Maharaj, Shri Gulavani Maharaj, Shri
Shankar Maharaj, Shri
Pant Maharaj Balekundri are
all the Incarnations of Dattatreya.
The solemn declaration of these
noble ones’ ‘‘Amhi Samadhi
Sthani Guptroopane Vaas Karu Aani Smaratakshani Pragat Asu
(We exist at Samadhi seat
latent and at appropriate time when remembered we reappear)’’
such assurance has been given to the devotees. Till today the
aspirants, the devotees with firm faith and pure dedication when
worship and pray, they are favoured, advised, guided and gifted by
illustrations and directions. This is the Blessing of
Datta. Though the Incarnations are different in forms and names
yet they all are one in Atmaswaroop in Unity.
From Vedas and Puranas, the basic
thinking rallies around the divine Dattatreya. Datta tradition,
Datta parampara, is nothing but only Blissful gift, mercy
of the Divine in sanctity to uplift humanity, the task of taking
the mankind from the materialistic life towards the Supreme.
This form is a symbolic Sadguru
form. This form is powerful, generous, kind and affectionate.
This form can be seen and understood by all the noble ones’ deeds
in the Datta sampradaya.
Dattatreya, the Divine Progeny of Rishi Atri and Mata
Anusuya is considered as the first Incarnation.
Datta adored as Avatar of forgiveness (kshama pradhan),
Dattatreya has appeared as Avadhoot, as Fakir, as
and favoured darshan to His devotees.
In Brahmapuran Dattatreya Avatar
has been described as,
Vishno Pradubrhavo Mahatmanaha
Khyathaha Kshamaya Parya Yutaha
(The very potent of Vishnu
incarnated as Dattatreya gracefully renowned for forgiveness)
Dattatreya, symbolic of grace of
Avadhoot, a typical form with knotted hair at the head, body
smeared with sacred ash (bhasma), the rudraksh mala
around the neck, the humble begging for attitude domain, and
moving from place to place with one solemn intention of uplifting
humanity and mankind. The basic fundamental core of Dattatreya
Avatar, the axiom of Dattatreya sampradaya is
jagkalyan and bhaktoddhar.
Datta Avatar is purely for
the redemption of mankind. The Avatar is of jnana
(wisdom), purity, penance, concentration of mind and dedicated
attitude. The Avatar is fundamental of surrendering self,
uplifting selflessness and devotion of the eternal divinity.
Datta Avatar can also be
Sagun Nirgun Eku Govindu.....
The Avatar of three modes
fused in grace of divinity, form and formless serenity, the
ultimate Govinda, the endless eternal cosmic blissful entity.
Shri Vasudevanand Saraswati
in ‘Dattatreya Shodasha Avatar’ Pothi, a religious
text, has described Bhagavan Dattatreya’s 16 Avatars
in adoration as,
1. Yogiraj, 2. Atrivarad,
3. Dattatreya, 4. Kalagnishama, 5. Yogijana Vallabha, 6. Leela
Vishwambhar, 7. Sidhharaj, 8. Jnan Sagar, 9. Vishwambhar-avadhoot,
10. Mayamuk-tavadhoot, 11. Adi Guru, 12. Shivroop, 13. Devdevavatar,
14. Digambar, 15. Shyamkamallochan, 16. Mayamukt-avadhoot (2nd time
appearance – Reincarnation of Mayamuktavadhoot)
Datta Mahaprabhu took these
Avatars only to uplift humanity. In doing so, Prabhu
has adopted or coopted 24 Gunas.
Jo Jayacha Ghetala Guna
The Datta Mahaprabhu
percepted each one of the gunas. 1. Prithvi
(Earth) - for forgiveness, pardon 2. Pavan (Wind) - for
void of desire 3. Vyom (Sky) - for equinamity 4. Jal
/ Udak (Water) - for purity 5. Agni (Fire) - for
splendour, radiance 6. Chandrama (Moon) - for coolness 7.
Surya (Sun) - for brilliance and grace 8. Kapot
(Pigeon) - for peace 9. Ajgar (Huge Serpent) - for
dullness, sluggishness 10. Samudra (Sea/Ocean) - for
vastness 11. Patang (Moth) - for endless, limitless, love,
attachment 12. Bhrung (Large Black Bee) - for libertine,
dissolute 13. Matang/Gaj (Elephant) - for the best of it’s
kind, never gets disturbed, set on, moves ahead firmly 14.
Madhumashi (Honey Bee) - for togetherness, works non-stop to
collect honey from flowers and tendency to store 15. Mrug
(Deer) - for egile, tendency to seek hunt, search, chase 16.
Matsya (Fish) - for the mankind 17. Pingala Veshya (A
Prostitute, named Pingala) - for virtous 18. Titavi
(Lapwing) - for effort 19. Balak (Child) - for purity,
ready to accept and for obediance 20. Kumari (Unmarried
Lady) - for humbleness, assurance 21. Sarpa (Serpent) - for
the task of guarding, vritti of watch and guard 22.
Sharkar (The One Who makes arrow) - for the concentration and
skill, aiming 23. Kumbhareen (Wasp) - for the skill, the
arranging everything 24. Koli (Fisherman) - for the
The solemn reason to adopt them all
as Guru has a definite meaning. It is apparent that all the
entities as such intended to adore are all of Universe. Right from
Prithvi to Koli, indicating the essence of divinity
superfluous in them; so each and everyone so choosen are to be
revered. The Universal entities are the creation of the Supreme.
Datta Mahaprabhu showed to
the Vishva, the graceful abundance in these forms are worth
of adoration and to be honoured and worshipped. Thus, each has
it’s potential content to be cognised and prayed.
In ‘Shri Guru Charitra’ initial
cantos deal with narration of Shri Dattatreya and further
the noble deeds of Shri Shripad Shrivallabha and Shri
Narasinha Saraswati is accounted.
In ‘Shri Guru Leelamrut’ the
graceful deeds of Akkalkot Swami Samartha is
enumerated at the later cantos. Shri Datta Daivat a
Vishnuroop only, to look after the mankind and to protect
historical reference is narrated as, for lokkalyan, Shri
Vishnu took birth in the hermitage of Shri Atri Rishi
as Vishnudatta. Vishnudatta called and fondled readdressing
His Brahma and Mahesh brotheren. Then appeared as Trimoorti
Datta in the Universe. Vishnudatta in Andhra Pradesh, at Pithapur
place, favoured a pious couple, when he was given alms.
‘‘Aai tujhya manachi talamal shant
hoyeel; majhyasarakha dnyani putra poti yava, hich na tujhi ichcha;
tar tujhya poti janma gheyeen
(Mother, you crave for a son,
jnani like Me; yes, I will be a progeny for you, Mata).’’
Thus He incarnated as Shri Shripad Shrivallabha.
The divine Brahmachari at
His age of sixteen imparting Vedas and Upanishads set for
righteous pilgrimage and at the bank of Krishna river at Kuravpur
much later appeared as Shri Narasinha Saraswati, the
Incarnation of Datta.
The symbolic name ‘Avadhoot’
is adored to the graceful Datta Mahaprabhu. One with
Jatajoot, bhasma smeared body and Rudrakshmala around
the neck, Vishwasanchari (Universal Wanderer), Avinashi
(Eternal), the Avatar of worthy, wisdom and righteous
knowledge. The Avatar progressed and propagated
overwhelmingly and remained shashwat (permanent).
The prominent names of
Satpurushas Shri Manik Prabhu (Humanabad), Shri
Swami Samartha (Akkalkot), Shri Sai Baba of
Shirdi, Shri Gajanan Maharaj of Shegaon, Shri
Vasudevanand Saraswati, Shri Shankar Maharaj are the
symbolic of Datta Avatar in recent years of time span of
100-150 years. They continued the lineage of the Avatar.
The great ones who reached the
graceful height of Datta Bhakta and as Datta Incarnation
are Janardan Swami, Eknath Maharaj, Gorakhnath,
Govind Prabhu, Chakradhar Swami, Dasopant, Mahipati,
Chidambar Dixit, Niranjan Raghunath, Narayan Maharaj
Jalvankar, Narsinha Saraswati (Alandi), Pant Maharaj
Balekundrikar, Rangavadhoot Maharaj, Gulavani Maharaj,
Aaudumbar, S. Narayanananda Swami. These great noble ones
did upasana extensively and attained the solemn height of
Datta Guru Peeth Anugraha in sanctity.
and Nirgun Sangam
The fusion of form and formless
Divinity of Dattatreya Avatar and the propagation of Datta
sampradaya is solely for uplifting humanity.
Datta sampradaya is purely
Jnan and Yoga fundamentals. The principles of
righteous pravritti is honoured and adored. The recognition
of pious devotion and the lineage of sampradaya is
basically, the Blessing of Shri Narsinha Saraswati. Emerged
all from Shri Kshetra Narasobawadi in Maharashtra.
The sampradaya or tradition is evident and potent.
The Satpurushas are all
potential Yogis of Jnan and Bhakti. The
Satpurushas have progressed the devotional paths both of form
and formless domain (Sagun and Nirgun paths).
The Daivat Dattatreya is
worshipped with full devotion.
The Vedas and Upanishads denote
Krityug, the time span of Datta Avatar. In Kaliyug, the
Avatar has pertinent significance, as declared by Shri
Krishna, ‘‘Dharma Sansthapanarthaya Sambhavami Yuge, Yuge.’’
In confirmation of this Incarnation
took place. In the south Andhra Pradesh at Pithapur (now
Vijayawada rly. station, Rajmahendri dist.), the Incarnation of
Shri Shripad Shrivallabha solemnised in the 14th century.
This noble One blessed and uplifted, rescued many many by His
divinity. At Kuravpur (Raichur dist., Andhra Pradesh) completed
the Avatar’s final obligation with firm assurance,
‘‘Punha Bhetu (Meet you all again).’’
In compliance, Shri
Narasinha Saraswati took birth at Karanja (Lad Karanja, Varhad
The Avatar in the time span
from year 1408 to 1458, served the humanity, looked after fully
the devotees and aspirants and the people.
And Shri Narasinha Saraswati
set for pilgrimage to Shri Shailya, the noble One disap-peared in
After 300 years reappeared.
Everyone realised the Avatar Purush as Shri
Swami Samartha of Akkalkot.
Shri Datta Avatar Parampara
Shri Shripad Shrivallabha as such
from materialistic point of view, put an end to the Avatar
He had directed a brahmin
woman to do aradhana and continue the sadhana of
Shani Pradosh vrata. That woman without the bliss of the
child left her mortal coil, not satisfied. She was born in a
brahmin family in Karanja, Varhad with name as Amba Bhavani
and got married to Madhav a brahmin and she gave birth to a
baby boy. That Son of her is Shri Narasinha Saraswati
only. Right from the birth the Divine Boy uttered ‘Omkar’
and no other syllable. The parents thought the boy is dumb only.
So much so they showed the Little One to many vaidyas
The Boy seeing the plight of His
simple parents showed by sign language that He should be
solemnised with thread ceremony, upanayan.
The parents being poor could not
afford to do upanayan of the Batu.
The Boy felt distressed by the
inability of the parents. He just touched an iron plate and turned
it into gold; so that His parents can afford to arrange
The upanayan, thread
ceremony was done with pomp and grandeur, the pandits
preached mantras to the Batu, looking at them the
Young Batu started chanting all of Vedas fluently. This
shocked everyone gathered there at the time of ritual begging (bhiksha).
Then, the Young Batu
requested the mother, to allow Him to go on pilgrimage.
The dear mother did not agree. The
Batu then called His mother and showed His previous
Avatar Form of Shri Shripad Shrivallabha, and assured
her of another progeny to her.
Then, when the son was born to her,
the Batu set out to Kashi for higher learning and to attain
In Kashi the Batu was
trained under the care of Krishna Saraswati. He sought sannyas
diksha from learned Krishna Saraswati. Thus the name
Narasinha Saraswati was given to Him.
In Kashi many got anugraha
from Shri Narasinha Saraswati. Shri Narasinha
Saraswati then set on pilgrimage moved from Nagjhari, Parali
Vaijanath and came to Aaudumber, Bhilvad, Sangli in Maharashtra.
He was welcomed by yoginis at Narasobawadi. Here at the
bank of Krishna He stayed for 12 years and on Gurudwadashi
day He disappeared from Narasobawadi.
He appeared in Gangapur (Karnataka)
and settled there. Shri Narasinha Saraswati showed mercy on
many; His mission of uplifting the poor, downtrodden, helpless
continued with His noble deeds and timely favours and granting
The fundamental task and mission of
Shri Narasinha Saraswati was redemption of mankind. When
the devotees and his mother asked Him, “Where and when we can see
You again ?” Shri Narasinha Saraswati said, “Light up the
lamp ! Then, with pure mind and firm faith look at this wall ! You
will see Me. You will get Sadguru darshan (Ishwari darshan).’’
The Guru preaching was simple, “Chant with compassion,
remember Us, We will appear.”
“Anthakaranpurvak Smaran Kelyas
Amhi Pragatu (With
utmost devotion call Me, I will appear).”
Narasinha Saraswati’s three main seats of Divinity are :-
Aaudumber - The
seat of Knowledge
Wadi - The
Seat of Penance
Gangapur - The
Seat of Righteousness
The fame of Shri Narasinha
Saraswati spread all over. The people started pouring into to have
divine darshan of the great one.
Narasinha Saraswati then decided to be latent in the human form.
Though not seen in entity, the grace was felt and experienced by
dedication with pure attitude. Shri Narasinha Saraswati
solemnly assured for all the devotees,
‘‘I will be in Gangapur in permanance
to Bless you all. I have kept My Padukas here with a notion
of the Padukas are symbolic of My relevence and assurance,
the Padukas vouch for Me.’’
Narasinha Saraswati then proceeded to Kardalivan from
Gangapur, appeared as Swami Samartha in Akkalkot after a
time period of three hundred years. The solemn assurance of
Swami Samartha is “Bhioo
Nakos; Smaratakshanich Mee Tujhya Pathishi
(Fear not; I am always nearby you, side by
– Naresh Dharvadkar
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